Canons of Beauty

Categories: Non Verbal Library

Beauty isn’t only in the eye of the beholder; researchers found that we found attractive some face traits or body proportions becouse they reflect the own of good genes, reproductive capacity or fitness. People appreciate some aspects aesthetic beauty. As humans, we are known to be drawn to individuals that are close to us in looks. There are two classes of attractiveness: either you are drawn to the physically attractive or the individuals personality. When one person is physically attracted to another, then there is an increase desire to have interactions. People who are physically attractive are known to have a higher confidence level due to the fact people tend to treat them better. People with higher confidence levels increase their attraction helping to draw other individuals attention. Many studies have stated that men are more overwhelmed by the physical attractiveness of women, while women are know to comment more on the males personality. However, this difference causes men and women to view themselves differently.

. Author: Charles Feng
Review: Journ. of Young Investigators
Title: Looking Good: The Psychology and Biology of Beauty

. Author: Dan Maccarone
Review: Psychology Today, Jan/Feb 2003
Title: The Beauty Bias

. Author: Rita Ciceri
Source; review: Psychological Review, 1996, Vol. 103, No. 2, 320-335
Title: Exotic Becomes Erotic: A Developmental Theory of Sexual Orientation and nonverbal syncronization – PDF

. Author: Unknown
Source: Beauty Matters Web Page and Links
Title: The Red Queen and the Beauty Rat Race

. Author: Singh D
Review: J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993 Aug;65(2):293-307.
Title: Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio

. Authors: Vanessa Correy, Jen Hatter, Sarah Quortrup & Heather Tinnell
Source: Web page
Title: Physical Attractiveness and Same-sexed Friendships

. Authors: B.Todosijevic, S.Ljubinkovic, A. Arancic
Review: Evolutionary Psychology (2003), 1:116-126
Title: Mate selection criteria: A trait desirability assessment study of sex differences in Serbia

. Authors: Carlos Yela, Jose Luis Sangrador
Review: Current Research in Social Psychology, February 16, 2001
Title: Perception of physical attractiveness throughout loving relationships

. Authors: Unspecified
Source: Junior Honours Project Web Page 1998
Title: The Effect of Smiling on Judicial Decisions

. Authors: Ronald Henss
Source: Web Site of University of Saarland – Germany
Title: Selected Publications – Abstracts

. Authors: Mendy Johnson
Source: Web Page
Title: Theory of Attraction

. Authors: Rikowski A, Grammer K
Review: Proceeding of the Royal Society B., vol. 266, 1422, pp. 869-874, 1999
Title: Human body odour, simmetry and attractiveness

. Authors: Grammer, K., Fink, B., Juette, A., Ronzal, G. & Thornhill, R.
Source: in G. Rhodes & L. Zebrobwitz (Eds.). Advances in Visual Cognition. Volume I: Facial Attractiveness. Ablex Publishing.
Title: Visual Female faces and bodies: n-dimensional feature space and attractiveness

. Author: Michael Levine, Estroff Marano
Review: Psychology Today, July, 2001
Title: Why I Hate Beauty

. Authors: Chris Hendricks, Dawn Olson, Seth Hall, Jonathan Batt
Review: Psy 324: Advanced Social Psychology, Spring, 1998
Title: Cultural Aspects of Physical Attraction

. Authors: Louise Wood
Source: Web Page
Title: Perceptions Of Female Beauty in the 20th Century

. Authors: Krebs D, Adinolfi AA
Review: Journ.of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975 Feb;31(2):245-53
Title: Physical attractiveness, social relations, and personality style

. Authors: Grush JE, Clore GL, Costin F
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975 Nov;32(5):783-9
Title: Dissimilarity and attraction: when difference makes a difference

. Authors: Unspecified
Source: Web Site
Title: Virtual attractiveness

. Authors: Savithri Ekanayake
Source: Serendip Web Site
Title: The Perfect’ Female (an analysis of Biology of Beauty)

. Author: Judith Rodin
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine Web Page
Title: Cultural and Psychosocial Determinants of Weight Concerns

. Author: I.S. Penton-Voak, D.I. Perret, J.W. Peirce
Source: School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews
Title: Computer Graphic Studies of the Role of Facial Similarity in Judgements of Attractiveness – PDF

. Author: Ian Penton-Voak
Review: Social Research, spring, 2000
Title: Consistency and Individual Differences in Facial Attractiveness Judgements: An Evolutionary Perspective

. Author: Edward M. Miller
Source: Abstract Presented at the August 1993 Binghamton meeting of the Human Evolution and Behavior Society
Title: Breasts: Their Evolutionary Origins as a Deceptive Signal of Need for Provisioning and Temporary Infertility

. Authors: DePaulo BM, Stone JI, Lassiter GD
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985 May;48(5):1191-203
Title: Telling ingratiating lies: effects of target sex and target attractiveness on verbal and nonverbal deceptive success

. Authors: Cunningham MR, Barbee AP, Pike CL
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990 Jul;59(1):61-72
Title: What do women want? Facialmetric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male facial physical attractiveness

. Authors: Mealey L, Bridgstock R, Townsend GC
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999 Jan;76(1):151-8
Title: Symmetry and perceived facial attractiveness: a monozygotic co-twin comparison

. Authors: Zebrowitz LA, Andreoletti C, Collins MA, Lee SY, Blumenthal J
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998 Nov;75(5):1300-20
Title: Bright, bad, babyfaced boys: appearance stereotypes do not always yield self-fulfilling prophecy effects

. Authors: Tidwell MC, Reis HT, Shaver PR
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996 Oct;71(4):729-45
Title: Attachment, attractiveness, and social interaction: a diary study

. Authors: Gump BB, Kulik JA
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 Feb;72(2):305-19
Title: Stress, affiliation, and emotional contagion

. Author: Anders Pape Møller
Source: Mindship International Presentation-Paper,
Title: Sexual Selection and the Biology of Beauty

. Authors: Bargh JA, Raymond P, Pryor JB, Strack F
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995 May;68(5):768-81
Title: Attractiveness of the underling: an automatic power –> sex association and its consequences for sexual harassment and aggression

. Author: Singh D
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995 Dec;69(6):1089-101
Title: Female judgment of male attractiveness and desirability for relationships: role of waist-to-hip ratio and financial status

. Authors: van de Vliert E, Euwema MC
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994 Apr;66(4):674-87
Title: Agreeableness and activeness as components of conflict behaviors

. Author: Maggie Wittlin
Source/review: Seed Magazine on line
Title: Beauty is in the processing-time of the beholder

. Authors: Zebrowitz LA, Olson K, Hoffman K
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993 Mar;64(3):453-66
Title: Stability of babyfaceness and attractiveness across the life span

. Author: John P. Swaddle and Gillian W. Reierson
Source/Review: The Royal Society, may 2002
Title: Testosterone increases perceived dominance but not attractiveness in human males

. Authors: Lois Rogers
Review: The Sunday Times, december 2002
Title: Male Beauty: Feminine Face Is Key To A Woman’s Heart

. Author: Bertram Malle
Source: Web Page in “Attitude and Social Behavior”, fall 1996,
Title: Attraction and Relationships

. Authors: J Grones, C DeBaldo,L Robertson, Lay Nah Tan, M Katt, J Hollingsworth
Review: Psychology of Gender, Spring 1998
Title: The Implications of the Media’s Influence Upon Adolescent Women and Appearance

. Author: Carol Salusso
Source: Web Page
Title: Collection of abstracts on attractiveness

. Author: John Hubbard
Source: Web Thesis
Title: What’s In A Face: Accuracy Of First Impressions Based Upon Facial Appearance

. Author: Henss, R
Review: Psychologische Beiträge, 1995, 37, 102-117
Title: Misses Germany, Titelmädchen des Jahres, Playmate des Jahres usw. Zur Urteilerübereinstimmung bei öffentlichen Schönheitswettbewerben. (Misses Germany, Cover Girl of the Year, Playmate of the Year, and so on … Consensus in public beauty contests and in psychological experiments)

. Authors: Unspecified
Review: Web Site
Title: Physical Attractiveness of the Face and the Attractiveness Halo

. Authors: Anthony Little, David Perrett
Source: First Science.Com Article
Title: Do Women Prefer ‘Manly’ Faces?

. Author: Jaclyn Rath
Review: Community of Undergraduate Journ.s Online, January 2006
Title: The Effect of Similar Physical Features on Perceived Levels of Attraction

. Authors: Perlini AH, Marcello A, Hansen SD, Pudney W
Review: Social Behavior and Personality, 2001, 29(3), 277-288
Title: The Effects of Male Age and Physical Appearance on Evaluations of Attractiveness, Social Desirability and Resourcefulness

. Author: Cosbey S
Review: Social Behavior and Personality 2001 29 (3), 277-288
Title: Clothing Interest, Clothing Satisfaction and Self Perceptions of Sociability, Emotional Stability, and Dominance

. Authors: Perlini AH, Hansen SD
Review: Social Behavior and Personality, 2001, 29(4), 313-322
Title: Moderating Effects of Need for Cognition on Attractiveness Stereotyping

. Author: O’Grady KE
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychol., 1982, Nov, 43(5):1064-71
Title: Sex, physical attractiveness, and perceived risk for mental illness

. Authors: Grush JE, Clore GL, Costin F
Review: Journ. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, Nov, 32(5):783-9
Title: Dissimilarity and attraction: when difference makes a difference

. Author: Pierce CA
Review: Social Behavior and Personality, 1996, 24 (2), 143-150
Title: Body Height and Romantic Attraction: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Male-Taller Norm

. Authors: Pawlowski B, Dunbar RI, Lipowicz A
Review:Nature,13 Jan 2000, n. 403 (6766):156
Title: Evolutionary fitness: tall men have more reproductive success

. Authors: Sheryl Brahnam
Reviews: Web Article
Title: Creating Physical Personalities For Agents with Faces: Modeling Trait Impressions on the FacePDF