Paralanguage

Categories: Nonverbal Categories

Paralanguage is part of the nonverbal communication and convey emotions and attitudes.
Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously.
Paralanguage” includes vocalizations such as hissing, shushing, and whistling, as well as speech modifications such as quality of voice or hesitations and speed in talking.
Some examples of paralanguage is laughing, crying, whispering, snoring, sucking, sneezing, sighing, etc.
Tone of voice plays a fundamental role in telephone operator-customer interaction, and generally in telephone interactions.

.  Authors: Gregory SW Jr, Webster S. Authors: Keltner D, Bonanno GA
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1997 Oct;73(4):687-702
Title: A study of laughter and dissociation: distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement

. Authors: Chapman AJ
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1975 Jan;31(1):42-9
Title: Humorous laughter in children

. Author: Robert L. Provine
Review: American Scientist , 1996, jan-feb.
Title: Laughter

. Authors: Keltner D, Bonanno GA
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 Oct;73(4):687-702
Title: A study of laughter and dissociation: distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement

. Authors: Brockner J, Heuer L, Siegel PA, Wiesenfeld B and Others
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1998 Aug;75(2):394-407
Title: The moderating effect of self-esteem in reaction to voice: converging evidence from five studies

Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1996 Jun;70(6):1231-40
Title: A nonverbal signal in voices of interview partners effectively predicts communication accommodation and social status perceptions

. Authors: Zuckerman M, Miyake K, Hodgins HS
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1991 Apr;60(4):545-54
Title: Cross-channel effects of vocal and physical attractiveness and their implications for interpersonal perception

. Authors: O’Sullivan M, Ekman P, Friesen W, Scherer K
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1985 Jan;48(1):54-62
Title: What you say and how you say it: the contribution of speech content and voice quality to judgments of others

. Authors: Matthews KA, Krantz DS, Dembroski TM, MacDougall JM 
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1982 Feb;42(2):303-13
Title: Unique and common variance in structured interview and Jenkins Activity Survey measures of the type A behavior pattern

. Authors: Caporael LR 
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, 1981 May;40(5):876-84
Title: The paralanguage of caregiving: baby talk to the institutionalized aged

. Author: Berry DS 
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology, Aug;61(2):298-307
Title: Accuracy in social perception: contributions of facial and vocal information.

. Authors: Gregory SW Jr, Webster S
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996 Jun;70(6):1231-40
Title: A nonverbal signal in voices of interview partners effectively predicts communication accommodation and social status perceptions

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