Proxemic is a form of nonverbal communication in which messages are conveyed from one person to another by the changing space that separates them during a conversation or an interaction. Anthropologist Edward T. Hall, the most famous scholar on this topic, found four key zones:
Intimate: touching to 10 inches. For close friends and family.
Casual-personal: 18 inches to four feet: Informal conversation with friends.
Social-consultative: four to twelve feet: formal transactions.
Public: Addressing groups of people.
Hall indicates that the mixing of various culturally defined distances in conversation can cause interesting, but alarming effects. He found that the comfortable conversation distances for a Latin American or Arab were too close for a North American.
Hall points out that when the differing cultures’ proxemic behavior clash “there is interference during the encounter. Normal behavior for a person with one cultural background may result in proxemic invasion when the person interacts with a person with a different cultural background. Further, such invasion may disrupt the communication encounter and lead to negative interpersonal perceptions on the part of the two people involved.
Other researches shown that cultural backgrounds can influence interpersonal distance. For example, in a library setting when there was invasion of subjects’ territory people show signs of avoidance or flight from that place. T he most clearly defined reactions involved forms of behavior compensation such as withdrawing arms, turning away, or building a barrier with books. Interpersonal space distances differed for males and females in friend and stranger dyadic settings…

Author: Paola Celestin
Source: Web Page
Title: Prossemica e mimica facciale  – in Italian – 

 Author: Mike Sheppard
Source: Web Page
Title: Proxemic: definition and links

Author: Bailenson JN, Blascovich J, Beall AC, Loomis JM
Review: Different reviews
Title: Equilibrium Theory revisited: mutual gaze and personal space in Virtual Environments – PDF

Authors: Beverly Harrison, Hiroshi Ishii, Mark H. Chignell
Review/Source: Web Page – Article
Title: An Empirical Study on Orientation of Shared Workspaces and Interpersonal Spaces in Video-Mediated Collaboration

Author: Edward Hall
Source: Abstract on line
Title: Proxemic theory

Author: Tara Maginnis
Source: Web Page – Article
Title: How’s your personal distance – watch this space

Authors: Dean H. Krikorian, Jae-Shin Lee, T. Makana Chock, Chad Harms
Source: JCMC 5 (4) June 2000 – Article
Title: Isn’t That Spatial?: Distance and Communication in a 2-D Virtual Environment

Authors: Laughead, Amy Louise
Review: Master Thesis (18.11.1999)  Web Page – Abstract
Title: Illumination Level as an Influence Factor on Proxemic Behavior

Authors: Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão1 and Others
Source; review: Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2006 julho-agosto; 14(4):491-6
Title: Analysis of proxemica communications with HIV/AIDS patients PDF – in Spanish

Author: Nina Brown
Source; review: web page
Title: Edward T. Hall: Proxemic Theory, 1966 performance and attitude

Author: Unspecified
Review: web page
Title: Proxemics:The Semiotics of space 

Authors: Christine A. Readdick, Ronald L. Mullis
Article: Adolescence, Summer, 1997
Title: Adolescents and adults at the mall: dyadic interactions

Authors: O. Michael Watson, Theodore D. Graves
Source; review: American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Aug., 1966), pp. 971-985
Title: Quantitative Research in Proxemic Behavior 

Author: Unspecified
Source: Web Page
Title: Expectancy violarions theory (1) PDF

Author: Andy Gillett
Source: ARELS Arena, 16, 22-23 (1997)
Title: Intercultural Communication 

Authors: Unspecified
Review: web page
Title: Proxemic communication 

Author: Judee Burgoon
Source: Web Page
Title: Expectancy violantions theory (2)

Author: M. S. Thirumalai
Source: Web Page
c BehaviorAuthors: V. Quera, A. Solanas, L. Salafranca, S. Herrando and F. Salvador
Source: Poster presented at Measuring Behavior ’98, 2nd International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, 18-21 August 1998, Groningen, The Netherlands
Title: P-SPACE: a program for simulating spatial behavior

Authors: Teresa J. Rosegrant, James C. McCroskey
Source: Web Article
Title: The effects of race and sex on proxemic behavior in an interview setting

Authors: Freundschuh S, Egenhofer M
Review: Transaction in GIS 2 (4): 361-375, 1997
Title: Human Conceptions of Spaces: Implications for Geographic Information Systems – PDF

Authors: James C. McCroskey, Thomas James Young& Virginia P. Richmond
Review: Unspecified
Title: A simulation methodology for proxemic research

Authors: Neumann R, Strack F
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, n. 79 (1), 2000, pp. 39-48
Title: Approach and avoidance: the influence of proprioceptive and exteroceptive cues on encoding of affective information

Authors: Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Allen KM
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, n. 79 (2), 2000, pp. 204-10
Title: A Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction?

Author: Sundstrom E
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975 Oct;32(4):645-54
Title: An experimental study of crowding: effects of room size, intrusion, and goal blocking on nonverbal behavior, self-disclosure, and self-reported stress

Authors: Baum A, Fisher JD, Solomon SK
Review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981 Jan;40(1):11-23
Title: Type of information, familiarity and the reduction of crowding stress

Author: Baum A, Greenberg CI
Review: Social Behavior and Personality, 1975 Oct; 32(4):671-9
Title: Waiting for a crowd: the behavioral and perceptual effects of anticipated crowding

Author: Edward Hall
Source: Web Page
Title: Proxemic Theory 

Author: William J. Ickinger
Review: Psychological Characteristics
Title: William J. Ickinger’s Publications on Line in PDF – Visit even his site Proxemic Research

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